“However, the idea that organizations might profitably be viewed as cultures did not attract sustained attention until the late 1970s, when the notion entered managerial discourse via two paths. The first was through the work of theorists who argued that organizations should be viewed as socially constructed systems of meaning (Wilkins, 1979; Pettigrew, 1979; Van Maanen, 1979; Dandridge, Mitroff, and Joyce, 1980; Louis, 1981; Martin, 1982; Pondy et aI., 1983). Influenced by anthropology and symbolic interactionism, these scholars sought to counterbalance systems rationalism by promoting an alternate paradigm for organizational analysis. The second and more influential path was through the work of consultants and applied researchers who wrote primarily for practitioners (Silverzweig and Alien, 1976; Peters, 1978; Ouchi and Price, 1978; O'Toole, 1979; Baker, 1980; Schwartz and Davis, 1981). Although the second group used images similar to the first, their claim was more pragmatic: By heeding the symbolics of leadership and by attending to employees' values, managers could enhance their firm's competitiveness...By the mid-1980s the practitioner-oriented view had become dominant, even in academic circles (Barley, Meyer, and Gash, 1988).” - Barley, S.R. & Kunda, G., 1992. Design and devotion: Surges of rational and normative ideologies of control in managerial discourse. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37(3), pp.363–399.